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By RICHARD G. NELSON, MARIE WALSH, JOHN J. SHEEHAN,

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The genetic material stores the information a cell needs to put together the sequence of amino acids of its various proteins. Proteins are probably the most common biological molecules for biotechnology applications. An organism’s characteristics can be altered to produce desirable traits by modifying the genetic material that programs for proteins. 2 Biologists categorize the molecules of living organisms into carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. ( Jeff Dixon) they can be used to carry out many chemical reactions used in food production, industry, and medicine.

Mitochondria have been genetically engineered to help cells better carry out energy production. Some researchers have metabolically engineered mitochondria to produce electricity. Chloroplasts are plant endosymbionts that carry out the metabolic process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is an anabolic process in which chloroplasts, with the aid of a chemical called chlorophyll, convert carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic substances into oxygen and organic compounds needed for plant structure and function.

Many people interpret biology as the study of life. Biology is concerned with the characteristics and behaviors of organisms. It deals with the mechanisms of existence of individual organisms and populations of organisms and their interaction with each other and with their environment. Biology consists of an expansive range of research fields that are often viewed as independent investigations but work with each other to build a better understanding of organisms. Many biologists incorporate science disciplines into their work as well as other fields of study such as anthropology, philosophy, psychology, and sociology.

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Applied Biochemistry And Biotechnology by RICHARD G. NELSON, MARIE WALSH, JOHN J. SHEEHAN,


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