By R. Miller
An severe charged particle beam could be characterised as an prepared charged particle movement for which the results of beam self-fields are of significant value in describing the evolution of the movement. learn making use of such beams is now a speedily turning out to be box with vital functions starting from the advance of excessive energy assets of coherent radiation to inertial confinement fusion. significant courses have now been proven at numerous laboratories within the usa and nice Britain, in addition to within the USSR, Japan, and a number of other jap and Western ecu international locations. moreover, comparable study actions are being pursued on the graduate point at a number of universities within the US and overseas. while the writer first entered this box in 1973 there has been no unmarried reference textual content that supplied a wide survey of the real subject matters, but contained enough element to be of curiosity to the energetic researcher. That scenario has continued, and this e-book is an try to fill the void. As such, the textual content is geared toward the graduate pupil, or starting researcher; even though, it comprises plentiful info to be a handy reference resource for the complex worker.
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Additional info for An Introduction to the Physics of Intense Charged Particle Beams
For a cold fluid, V· P=O. If the effects of finite temperature were to be included, this term would be retained, and it would be necessary 28 Chap. 1 • Introduction to make an assumption about an equation of state in order to calculate the stress tensor P(x, t) and close the system of equations. Alternatively, further moments of the Vlasov equation would be required, and it would then be necessary to make appropriate assumptions about the heat flow tensor. In addition to the difficulty of including finite temperature effects, all momentum space information is lost in taking the moments.
2 • Intense Electron and Ion Beam Generation mechanics of how electrons get on and off equipotential surfaces. 4). 3. Foilless Diodes 24 For applications which require electron beam extraction into vacuum regions, foilless diodes have proven to be extremely useful diode configurations. In such diodes the beam does not pass through a grounded anode, and beam expansion and transport must be controlled by an externally imposed magnetic field. In addition to eliminating the problems associated with anode vaporization and beam heating due to anode foil scatter, very thin annular beams are easily generated with such diodes.
4. 33 The success of these new methods depends largely on the degree of control or modification of the electron distribution in the high-voltage diode gap. 1 (in the nonrelativistic Sec. 4 • Ion Flow in High-Power Diodes ss limit). 71) where Z is the ionic charge and mj is the ion mass. Since transverse space charge forces tend to defocus the ion beam, the diode spacing d is kept as small as possible, typically a few millimeters. At the same time the applied voltage must be kept sufficiently low to avoid explosive electron emission from the cathode (;:5100 kY fcm).
An Introduction to the Physics of Intense Charged Particle Beams by R. Miller