By Leonard Susskind
Over the past decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by means of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein's consciousness that black holes have entropy. Steven Hawking raised profound concerns about the lack of info in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in an international with gravity. for 2 a long time those questions wondered theoretical physicists and at last resulted in a revolution within the means we expect approximately area, time, subject and data. This revolution has culminated in a awesome precept known as "The Holographic Principle", that is now an incredible concentration of awareness in gravitational study, quantum box idea and uncomplicated particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String concept, develops and explains those suggestions.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe
The appropriate description of an entangled subsystem is in terms of a density matrix. 3 Black Holes, Information, and the String Theory Revolution Review of the Density Matrix Suppose a system consists of two subsystems, A and B, which have previously been in contact but are no longer interacting. 7) where α and β are appropriate commuting variables for the subsystems A and B. Now suppose we are only interested in subsystem A. A complete description of all measurements of A is provided by the density matrix ρA (α, α ).
From the viewpoint of the Fidos, a particle is injected into the system at ω = −∞ and ρ = 0. The particle travels to some distance and then falls back towards ρ = 0 and ω = +∞. Thus, according to the Fidos, the ﬂuctuation lasts for an inﬁnite time and is therefore not virtual at all. Real particles are seen being injected into the Rindler space from the horizon, and eventually fall back to the horizon. To state it diﬀerently, the horizon behaves like a hot membrane radiating and reabsorbing thermal energy.
This suggests a new way to carry out the 38 Black Holes, Information, and the String Theory Revolution path integral. Let us deﬁne the Euclidean angle in the (Z, X 0 ) plane to be θ. The angle θ is the Euclidean analogue of the Rindler time ω. 3. T δθ χL Fig. 3 Horizon ρ=0 χR θ=0 Z Euclidean analogue of Rindler space for path integration The strategy for computing the path integral is to integrate over the ﬁelds in the ﬁrst wedge between θ = 0 and θ = δθ. The process can be iterated until the entire region X 0 > 0 has been covered.
An Introduction to Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe by Leonard Susskind