Charles A. Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United PDF

By Charles A. Beard

This well-known study — the most influential within the zone of yankee financial history — introduced a halt to Americans' uncritical reverence for his or her country's innovative prior. wondering the Founding Fathers' motivations in drafting the structure, it considered the implications as a manufactured from monetary self-interest. might be the main debatable books of its time.

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Extra resources for An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States

Sample text

Assumption 1. Environmental performance, E Environmental performance is a linear combination of biodiversity and water quality improvement benefits, E (l , m) = αBD (m) + β BZ (l , m) with 0 < α , β < 1 and α + β = 1 and 0 < E (m, l ) ≤ 1 . 2 it can be seen that decreasing fertilizer application and increasing buffer strip size reduce nutrient runoff. Moreover, there is a trade-off between them: by increasing the size of the buffer strips one can allow for higher fertilizer application in the bid for obtaining the same score.

As regards spatial heterogeneity the focus is on differential land productivity that leads to differing fertilizer intensities and differing nutrient runoff. Moreover, biodiversity benefits are dependent on land allocation/use choices between different crops as well as between agricultural land and other land uses, such as forestry. This framework is then used to examine conceptually and empirically the effects of different types of agricultural and agri-environmental policies commonly used in many OECD member countries, including crop area payments, fertilizer taxes, mandatory minimum width of field edges or buffer strips, payments for establishing buffer strips, and finally alternative types of conservation auctions.

Capital cost is another fixed cost term but it is independent of the size of the buffer strip. Both fixed cost terms affect the analysis: the size of the buffer strips is dependent on labour costs, and both labour and capital will affect directly land allocation and, hence, the social optimum. The model employs a quadratic Nitrogen response function, yi = ai + α i li + β i li2 , which has been estimated for rape (crop 1) and spring wheat (crop 2) in clay soils by Heikkilä (1980) and Bäckman et al.

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An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States by Charles A. Beard

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