By Lienhard J.H.
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Extra resources for A heat transfer textbook
We see in Fig. 10 that, if L (kb / h) the body, Tb , is almost constant within the body at any time. Thus hL kb 1 implies that Tb (x, t) T (t) Tsurface and the thermal conductivity, kb , becomes irrelevant to the cooling process. This condition must be satisﬁed or the lumped-capacity solution will not be accurate. We call the group hL kb the Biot number 6 , Bi. If Bi were large, of course, the situation would be reversed, as shown in Fig. 11. In this 1 and the convection process oﬀers little resistance case Bi = hL/kb to heat transfer.
5 A 1 m rod of pure copper 1 cm2 in cross section connects a 200◦ C thermal reservoir with a 0◦ C thermal reservoir. The system has already reached steady state. What are the rates of change of entropy of (a) the ﬁrst reservoir, (b) the second reservoir, (c) the rod, and (d) the whole universe, as a result of the process? Explain whether or not your answer satisﬁes the Second Law of Thermodynamics. 6 Two thermal energy reservoirs at temperatures of 27◦ C and −43◦ C, respectively, are separated by a slab of material 10 cm thick and 930 cm2 in cross-sectional area.
Saroﬁm. Radiative Transfer. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1967. 17] R. Siegel and J. R. Howell. Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer. , 4th edition, 2001. 18] M. F. Modest. Radiative Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993. 19] P. B. Whalley. Boiling, Condensation, and Gas-Liquid Flow. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987. 20] J. G. Collier and J. R. Thome. Convective Boiling and Condensation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 3rd edition, 1994. 21] Y. Y. Hsu and R. W. Graham. Transport Processes in Boiling and Two-Phase Systems Including Near-Critical Systems.
A heat transfer textbook by Lienhard J.H.