5 Minute Daily Practice - Test Taking - Grades 4 - 8 by Jacqueline B. Glasthal PDF

By Jacqueline B. Glasthal

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This bleed water may not always be seen, since it can evaporate on hot or windy days faster than it rises to the surface. Bleeding can generally be reduced, by increasing the cohesiveness of the concrete. This is usually achieved by one or more of the following means: increasing the cement content, increasing the sand content, using a finer sand, using less water, air-entrainment, using a rounded natural sand rather than an angular crushed one. The rate of bleeding will be influenced by the drying conditions, especially wind, and bleeding will take place for longer on cold days.

This can lead to mixes prone to bleeding, unless mix proportions are adjusted to overcome the problem. Increasing the cement content by 5–10% can often offset the lack of fine particles in the sand. Beach sands are generally unsuitable for good-quality concrete, since they are likely to have high concentrations of chloride due to the accumulation of salt crystals above the high-tide mark. They are also often single-sized, which can make the mix design difficult. Lightweight aggregates. In addition to natural gravels and crushed rocks, a number of manufactured aggregates are also available for use in concrete.

Because admixtures are added to concrete mixes in small quantities, they should be used only when a high degree of control can be exercised. Incorrect dosage of an admixture can adversely affect strength and other properties of the concrete. Requirements for the following main types of admixture are specified in BS EN 934-2. Normal water-reducing admixtures. Commonly known as plasticisers or workability aids, these act by reducing the inter-particle attraction within the cement, to produce a more uniform dispersion of the cement grains.

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5 Minute Daily Practice - Test Taking - Grades 4 - 8 by Jacqueline B. Glasthal

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